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Buying vs. Renting: Is Owning a Home Really a Good Investment?

Written by Steve Cook on September 30, 2013 in Real Estate  |   4 comments

When you went through the process of buying a home for the first time, you probably were a little nervous about making monthly mortgage payments for 30 years. You may have even had second thoughts about the entire purchase. But then you may have heard…

real estate investing, buying vs. renting, buying a homeWhen you went through the process of buying a home for the first time, you probably were a little nervous about making monthly mortgage payments for 30 years. You may have even had second thoughts about the entire purchase. But then you may have heard that real estate investing was a great idea, and your fears about owning a home evaporated.

But is homeownership really such a good deal as an investment? Or should you be putting your money in the stock market instead?

Recently, two researchers at the Atlanta Federal Reserve set out to answer that question. They analyzed returns of home prices against returns in the stock market (setting aside the value of the mortgage interest tax deduction, the forced savings that comes with paying a mortgage, and the relative cost of renting vs. buying) going back to 1926. They chose an 87-year time period to even out some of the ups and downs in securities and housing markets.

How they did it

The researchers, Atlanta Fed economists Ellyn Terry and Jessica Dill, asked two important questions to help them assess whether housing is a good investment:

  1. With average returns so close to zero, just how often has the housing market produced losers?
  2. How does investing in housing compare to investing in equities?

They did not look at the “buy and hold” strategies popular among investors seeking cash flow from rents. Instead, they looked only at appreciation.

Terry and Dill computed the average annual return of home prices across all possible combinations of start and stop points using the Shiller house price series from 1926 to 2012. They found that 80 percent of all start-stop point observations experience some degree of positive return.

To take into account the duration of ownership, they assumed that the average homeowner lives in his or her home for 13.3 years, based on analysis by Paul Emrath at the National Association of Home Builders.

For comparison, they looked at the S&P 500 Index (as a representation of the stock market) and compared the average annual returns in stocks to the average annual returns in housing.

The findings

How long you stay matters. The average annual returns for an asset held for a period of 13 or more years, according to the study, is substantially less volatile than for an asset held for fewer than 13 years. Those investing for the longer term were much more likely to have positive returns.

The study also found that 50 percent of homes owned for less than 13 years had negative annual returns compared to 12 percent for homes owned 13 years or more.

More years of ownership could mean smaller returns. Despite the better odds for positive returns for homes owned 13 years or more, Terry and Dill found that the average annual return was actually slightly higher for those owning for fewer than 13 years.

So, if you buy and stay for a while, you’re more likely to see a positive return on your investment than you would if you sold right away—but that return might be smaller than it would have been had you sold earlier.

The stock market may still offer a better return on investment. The study found that investing in equities offers favorable returns more often than investing in housing.

While there is more volatility in terms of return, that volatility comes with an opportunity for larger gains over time. According to the study, the weighted average annual return of the S&P 500 is 4.55 percent compared to 0.97 percent for the Shiller real home price index.

“It’s important to note that the distributions of returns for housing in all these computations are not the distribution of returns for every possible house purchase,” Terry and Dill wrote in the study. “Likewise, the returns shown for the S&P 500 are not the entire universe of returns from buying and selling individual stocks. Instead, these returns are based on a pool of housing and a pool of stocks.”

Is the investment worth it?

These findings might leaving you wondering, “If I can see a larger return in the stock market than I can in the real estate market, should I bother buying a home? Shouldn’t I just put my money in the stock market?”

The answer depends on your personal circumstances, but there are certain things to consider.

Today, real estate values are appreciating, and rents are rising. While you can see a return on your home’s increased value, you won’t see any return on your higher rent payments.

In fact, according to Jed Kolko, chief economist at Trulia, homeowners who buy a home today and hold it for seven years can expect to pay 44 percent less than people who choose to rent.

There are other perks to homeownership, too. You may be able to benefit from the mortgage interest deduction, and paying down your mortgage is a kind of forced savings in the form of equity. This equity can be accessed when you sell the home, but it can also be accessed in the form of a home equity loan or cash out refinance. If you are the sort of person who finds it hard to save, you may appreciate the forced savings of a mortgage.

And at an average of 4.40 percent for a 30-year fixed-rate mortgage (according to Freddie Mac), you’ll be earning more in interest on that forced savings than you would if your cash were sitting in a savings account earning 1 percent in interest.

Alternatively, you can stay a renter and hope your stock market investments beat the cost of your annual rent increases, though such increases are on the high side these days—around 7 percent to 8 percent.

Before you make your final decision, take stock of your personal finances and spending habits to ensure you’re making the best choice for your situation.

Steve Cook is executive vice president of Reecon Advisors and covers government and industry news for the Reecon Advisory Report. He is a member of the National Press Club, the Public Relations Society of America, and the National Association of Real Estate Editors, where he served as second vice president. Twice he has been named one of the 100 most influential people in real estate. In addition to serving as managing editor of the Report, Cook provides public relations consulting services to real estate companies, financial services companies, and trade associations, including some of the leading companies in online residential real estate.

The information contained in this blog post is designed to generally educate and inform visitors to the Equifax Finance Blog. The blog posts do not give, and should not be assumed to provide, personalized tax, investment, real estate, legal, retirement, credit, personal financial, or other professional advice. Before making any financial decision, you should always consult with the appropriate professionals who can explain your options, rights, and legal responsibilities, and advise you on any tax, legal, credit, or business implications that may result from those decisions. The views and opinions expressed by the authors of blog posts are their own views and may not be the views or opinions of Equifax, Inc. and/or its affiliates.


  1. smallfry says:

    You have to pay one or the other, rent or a mortgage payment. You have to have a place to live. Where is this money coming from to invest in stocks? It’s not like you have a choice to invest in stocks and live on the street, or make a house a payment. Since you have to make this payment why not on your OWN property. Renting will never build equity.

  2. C. Ryan says:

    I agree with smallfy. You have to live somewhere.
    Home ownership is not investing or an investment. However, it can be smart money management as part of a broader investment strategy that includes stocks and bonds(ie. “the market”), rental real estate, cash and other investments.
    As a home owner, you are ultimately a long term renter. You still pay property taxes (which typically increase over time),maintenance (costs of material and labor typically rise), and interest on a mortgage if one exists (the cost of which can be “fixed”).

    This can be offset in the short run by: utility (you live there) and possibly some income tax deduction for mortgage interest.

    In the long run: You enjoy dividends/ forced savings, in the form of equity and potential asset appreciation and/or a hedge against inflation.

    Location, market cycles and time are all variables. ( In 1990, would you have been better off placing a 20% down payment on a home you live in today in SF,Detroit, NY, Atlanta, Chicago, Denver or Miami or Costa Rica?)

    The article should either be entitled “Rent vs Own”, which is covered in a previously linked article, OR “Have Capital to Invest, Real Estate or Equities?”

    Mr. Cook, Your article is not worthy of Your reputation. Mrs. Glink should have known better than to send this to her audience, or did she actually read it?
    I don’t mean to be a troll, but this is poor journalism, even if only a “blog”. The fact that the Atlanta Fed took time to research this is yet another example of government hack. This is High School stuff. You get paid well, please deliver something of value.

    Regards, C. Ryan

  3. David Hoskins says:

    Of course OWNING. Are you going to life the whole life renting? One day you need a place for your own. I found owning a home more beneficial. If you have a good salary to support you, take up a mortgage loan with lower rates, consider your every month payment towards mortgage as your rent and that too you don’t have to pay it for your lifetime; you will be an owner. Extra benefits; tax relaxation. I’ve taken up a mortgage loan from Safebridge Financial Group in GTA Ontario and their rates were lower. I am happy to own a home and that happiness will never be there if I were renting a place instead.

  4. Blaine M says:

    The popular argument is that you’ve already spending the money on rent, why not put that same amount into a house? I wanted to give another perspective, one which I imagine is becoming increasingly prevalent as millennials are now in their 30s.

    I’m drawn to renting + investing, mainly because I’m not starting out in debt. By starting out $300,000 in debt, as I pay my mortgage, I’m essentially paying off the debt to hit the point of positive return. The general safe rule, as I’ve read and talked to real estate professionals, is that you have to plan on owning for 5 years. After that, in normally appreciating housing markets, you’re likely to get all your money back. After that, you’re likely to make money, but not before.

    Now over to the investment market side of the argument. Even if I invest less than I would through a mortgage, the amount of money I will have made in a normal investment market (7-9%), over 5 years, has a higher chance of returning more, vs selling the house. Also, I have more control over which options to invest (stocks, bonds, money market, CD, etc). If I want to go conservative, I can. If I want to go high risk, I can. If I want to blend the two, or blend a few more (which is wise), I can. I’m not stuck with one house, long term, with the option to make my money back only when I sell in 5 years.

    Also, I’m not at the point in my life where I want to settle into a place for 5 years. Single, 30something, with no kids, my needs are small. If I bought a house I’m committing myself to at least that long. Investment markets can follow me anywhere I chose to roam.

    Both have risks; not being able to sell the house, the investment market bombing out, etc. But for me, the big picture in investment market provides more freedom and flexibility.

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